Silent Partners: Human Subjects and Research Ethics
Author: Rebecca Dresser File Type: pdf When is a human study ethical? For years, science and society have struggled with this question. Experts have put great effort into developing ethical principles and rules that adequately protect and respect volunteers in studies aimed at improving human health. But experts have missed something important. They have created a research ethics system without the help of people who know what it is like to be a research subject. This is a serious omission. Experienced research subjects can make valuable contributions to research ethics. People who have been in studies have information about the experience that other people can overlook. Their experience as subjects gives them special insights into ethics, too. Experienced subjects also know about problems that can lead people to refuse to join studies, or drop out before studies are complete. Scientists and ethicists often speak of subjects as partners in research, but the reality is quite different. Experienced subjects are rarely appointed to the advisory groups that create guidelines for ethical research, or to the committees that review individual studies to determine whether they meet ethical and regulatory standards. A large body of work describes the perceptions and viewpoints of people who have participated in research. But experts rarely use this material to guide improvements in human subject protection. Although subjects have the power to decide whether to participate in a study, they have little control over anything else that goes on in research. ul lSilent Partners* moves research subjects to the forefront. It examines what research participation is like for healthy volunteers and patients. It explains why subjects voices should influence research ethics. Silent Partners shows how experienced research subjects can become real-not just symbolic-partners in research. l ul **
Author: Raymond Wolters
File Type: pdf
With the Supreme Courts landmark Brown decisions of 1954 and 1955, American education changed forever. But Brown was just the beginning, and Raymond Wolters contends that its best intentions have been taken to unnecessary extremes.In this compelling study, a scholar who has long observed the traumas of school desegregation uncovers the changes and difficulties with which public education has dealt over the last fifty yearsand argues that some judicial decisions were ill-advised. Dealing candidly with matters usually considered taboo in academic discourse, Wolters argues that the Supreme Court acted correctly and in accordance with public sentiment in Brown but that it later took a wrong turn by equating desegregation with integration.Retracing the history of desegregation and integration in Americas schools, Wolters distinguishes between several Court decisions, explaining that while Brown called for desegregation by requiring that schools deal with students on a racially nondiscriminatory basis, subsequent decisionsGreen, Swann, Keyesrequired actual integration through racial balancing. He places these decisions in the context of educational reform in the 1950s that sought to encourage bright students through advanced placement and honors coursescourses in which African American and Hispanic students were less likely to be enrolled. Then with the racial unrest of the 1960s, the pursuit of academic excellence yielded to concerns for uplifting disadvantaged youths and ensuring the predominance of middle-class peer groups in schools.Wolters draws on rich historical records to document the devastating consequences of requiring racial balance and sheds new light on Americas legal, social, and cultural landscapes. He reexamines the educational theories of Kenneth Clark and James Coleman, and he challenges statistics that support the results of racial balancing by describing how school desegregation and integration actually proceeded in several towns, cities, and counties.Race and Education is a bold challenge to political correctness in education and a corrective to the now widely accepted notion that desegregation and racially balanced integration are one and the same. It is essential reading for scholars of law and education and a wake-up call for citizens concerned about the future of Americas schools.**
Author: Kyle Harper
File Type: epub
A sweeping new history of how climate change and disease helped bring down the Roman EmpireHere is the monumental retelling of one of the most consequential chapters of human history the fall of the Roman Empire. The Fate of Rome is the first book to examine the catastrophic role that climate change and infectious diseases played in the collapse of Romes powera story of natures triumph over human ambition.Interweaving a grand historical narrative with cutting-edge climate science and genetic discoveries, Kyle Harper traces how the fate of Rome was decided not just by emperors, soldiers, and barbarians but also by volcanic eruptions, solar cycles, climate instability, and devastating viruses and bacteria. He takes readers from Romes pinnacle in the second century, when the empire seemed an invincible superpower, to its unraveling by the seventh century, when Rome was politically fragmented and materially depleted. Harper describes how the Romans were resilient in the face of enormous environmental stress, until the besieged empire could no longer withstand the combined challenges of a little ice age and recurrent outbreaks of bubonic plague.A poignant reflection on humanitys intimate relationship with the environment, The Fate of Rome provides a sweeping account of how one of historys greatest civilizations encountered and endured, yet ultimately succumbed to the cumulative burden of natures violence. The example of Rome is a timely reminder that climate change and germ evolution have shaped the world we inhabitin ways that are surprising and profound.
Author: António Lobo Antunes
File Type: epub
From the author The New Yorker hails as one of the most skillful psychological portraitists writing anywhere. The Splendor of Portugals four narrators are members of a once well-to-do family whose plantation was lost in the Angolan War of Independence the matriarch of this unhappiest of clans and her three adult children speak in a nightmarish, remorseless gush to give us the details of their grotesque family life. Like a character out of Faulkners decayed south, the mother clings to the hope that her children will come back, save her from destitution, and restore the familys imagined former glory. The children, for their part, havent seen each other in years, and in their isolation are tormented by feverish memories of Angola. The vitriol and self-hatred of the characters know no bounds, for they are at once victims and culprits, guilty of atrocities committed in the name of colonialism as well as the cruel humiliations and betrayals of their own kin. Antunes again proves that he is the foremost stylist of his generation, a fearless investigator into the worst excesses of the human animal.
Author: Andrés Neuman
File Type: epub
Sooner or later, we all face loss. Ten-year old Lito is sure that he can change the weather, if only he concentrates very hard. His seriously ill father Mario is anxious to create a life-long memory for the unsuspecting Lito, and takes him on a road-trip in a truck called Pedro. Together, they embark on a journey through strange landscapes which blur the borders of the Spanish-speaking world. In the meantime, Litos mother Elena tries to find solace in books – and undertakes a precarious adventure of her own that will challenge her moral limits. Alternately narrated by the mother, father and son, ITalking to OurselvesI is a story about how we are transformed by loss, and how words, and sex, can serve as powerful modes of resistance. Each of these solitary, richly textured and strikingly unique voices forms a poignant communication – while none of them dares to tell the others the whole truth. A profound tribute to all those who have...
Author: Philip E. Steinberg
File Type: azw
As climate change makes the Arctic a region of key political interest, so questions of sovereignty are once more drawing international attention. The promise of new sources of mineral wealth and energy, and of new transportation routes, has seen countries expand their sovereignty claims. Increasingly, interested parties from both within and beyond the region, including states, indigenous groups, corporate organizations, and NGOs and are pursuing their visions for the Arctic. What form of political organization should prevail? Contesting the Arctic provides a map of potential governance options for the Arctic and addresses and evaluates the ways in which Arctic stakeholders throughout the region are seeking to pursue them.
Author: Anne Williams
File Type: pdf
Art of Darkness is an ambitious attempt to describe the principles governing Gothic literature. Ranging across five centuries of fiction, drama, and verseincluding tales as diverse as Horace Walpoles The Castle of Otranto, Shelleys Frankenstein, Coleridges The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, and Freuds The Mysteries of EnlightenmentAnne Williams proposes three new premises that Gothic is poetic, not novelistic, in nature that there are two parallel Gothic traditions, Male and Female and that the Gothic and the Romantic represent a single literary tradition.Building on the psychoanalytic and feminist theory of Julia Kristeva, Williams argues that Gothic conventions such as the haunted castle and the family curse signify the fall of the patriarchal family Gothic is therefore poetic in Kristevas sense because it reveals those others most often identified with the female. Williams identifies distinct Male and Female Gothic traditions In the Male plot, the protagonist faces a cruel, violent, and supernatural world, without hope of salvation. The Female plot, by contrast, asserts the power of the mind to comprehend a world which, though mysterious, is ultimately sensible. By showing how Coleridge and Keats used both Male and Female Gothic, Williams challenges accepted notions about gender and authorship among the Romantics. Lucidly and gracefully written, Art of Darkness alters our understanding of the Gothic tradition, of Romanticism, and of the relations between gender and genre in literary history.
Author: Alan H. Goldman
File Type: pdf
Through careful consideration of the mutually plausible yet conflicting arguments on both sides of the issue, Alan Goldman attempts to derive a morally consistent position on the justice (or injustice) of reverse discrimination. From a philosophical framework that appeals to a contractual model of ethics, he develops principles of rights, compensation, and equal opportunity. He then applies these principles to the issue at hand, bringing his conclusions to bear on an evaluation of Affirmative Action programs as they tend to work in practice. Originally published in 1979. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905. **